Although deserts are largely inhospitable places, a number of poisonous and venomous animal species do exist. A number of explanations have been proposed as to why poisons and venoms exist in animals. The two major reasons for containing poisons and venoms are to act as a deterrent against being consumed by predators (poisons), or also as a means to prevent prey species from travelling too far after being struck by a predator, thereby allowing the predator to conserve energy in this harsh environment. An example of a poisonous animals living in desert environments is the Sonoran Toad (Bufo Alvarius), which produces a psychoactive tryptamine called bufotenin. Examples of venomous animals living in deserts range from invertebrates such as centipedes and scorpions to venomous snakes and other dangerous reptiles.