Dr. James S. Metcalf is a Senior Research Fellow of the Institute for Ethnomedicine. He obtained a Joint Honours BSc in Marine Biology and Biochemistry from the University of Wales, Bangor. He subsequently completed a Ph.D. at the University of Dundee in 2000 researching the immunodetection of cyanobacterial toxins. He has continued to examine various aspects of cyanobacterial toxins through Post-doctoral Fellowships at the University of Dundee, involving multinational projects on cyanotoxins throughout Europe, until 2006. Since that time he has continued an active collaboration with Prof. Geoffrey Codd of the University of Dundee. His current research interests include the analytical, toxicological and molecular biological assessment of cyanobacterial toxins, in particular the neurotoxic amino acid, N-methylamino-L-alanine.